3. Non-lethal Sampling Techniques in Fish Liver following exposure to the Sub-Lethal Concentration of Sodium Selenate.


Non-lethal sampling methods in animal research have several advantages including testing of individuals that might be too rare to allow for removal of large numbers from the population, permitting samples to be taken from a single individual over many time points, and benefiting animal welfare by reducing the number of animals euthanized in research. The non-lethal sampling techniques have many pros inclusive of the ability to sample large populations of rare fish species without decreasing their numbers, multiple sampling from one individual specimen and upholding animal welfare by eradication of killing in research This project aims to establish non-lethal sampling techniques in assessing the histopathology in Oleochromis niloticus fish liver following exposure to the sub-lethal concentrations of sodium selenate’


URC South Africa

Principle Instigator
DR. Lolo Mokae